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strftime

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Format a local time/date according to locale settings

Syntax

strftime ( string $format [, int $timestamp = time() ] ) : string

Parameters

format
Format Description Example
Day
%a An abbreviated textual representation of the day Sun through Sat
%A A full textual representation of the day Sunday through Saturday
%d Two-digit day of the month (with leading zeros) 01 to 31
%e Day of the month, with a space preceding single digits. Not implemented as described on Windows. See below for more information. 1 to 31
%j Day of the year, 3 digits with leading zeros 001 to 366
%u ISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week 1 (for Monday) through 7 (for Sunday)
%w Numeric representation of the day of the week 0 (for Sunday) through 6 (for Saturday)
Week
%U Week number of the given year, starting with the first Sunday as the first week 13 (for the 13th full week of the year)
%V ISO-8601:1988 week number of the given year, starting with the first week of the year with at least 4 weekdays, with Monday being the start of the week 01 through 53 (where 53 accounts for an overlapping week)
%W A numeric representation of the week of the year, starting with the first Monday as the first week 46 (for the 46th week of the year beginning with a Monday)
Month
%b Abbreviated month name, based on the locale Jan through Dec
%B Full month name, based on the locale January through December
%h Abbreviated month name, based on the locale (an alias of %b) Jan through Dec
%m Two digit representation of the month 01 (for January) through 12 (for December)
Year
%C Two digit representation of the century (year divided by 100, truncated to an integer) 19 for the 20th Century
%g Two digit representation of the year going by ISO-8601:1988 standards (see %V) Example: 09 for the week of January 6, 2009
%G The full four-digit version of %g Example: 2008 for the week of January 3, 2009
%y Two digit representation of the year Example: 09 for 2009, 79 for 1979
%Y Four digit representation for the year Example: 2038
Time
%H Two digit representation of the hour in 24-hour format 00 through 23
%k Hour in 24-hour format, with a space preceding single digits 0 through 23
%I Two digit representation of the hour in 12-hour format 01 through 12
%l (lowercase L) Hour in 12-hour format, with a space preceding single digits 1 through 12
%M Two digit representation of the minute 00 through 59
%p UPPER-CASE 'AM' or 'PM' based on the given time Example: AM for 00:31, PM for 22:23
%P lower-case 'am' or 'pm' based on the given time Example: am for 00:31, pm for 22:23
%r Same as "%I:%M:%S %p" Example: 09:34:17 PM for 21:34:17
%R Same as "%H:%M" Example: 00:35 for 12:35 AM, 16:44 for 4:44 PM
%S Two digit representation of the second 00 through 59
%T Same as "%H:%M:%S" Example: 21:34:17 for 09:34:17 PM
%X Preferred time representation based on locale, without the date Example: 03:59:16 or 15:59:16
%z The time zone offset. Not implemented as described on Windows. See below for more information. Example: -0500 for US Eastern Time
%Z The time zone abbreviation. Not implemented as described on Windows. See below for more information. Example: EST for Eastern Time
Time and Date Stamps
%c Preferred date and time stamp based on locale Example: Tue Feb 5 00:45:10 2009 for February 5, 2009 at 12:45:10 AM
%D Same as "%m/%d/%y" Example: 02/05/09 for February 5, 2009
%F Same as "%Y-%m-%d" (commonly used in database datestamps) Example: 2009-02-05 for February 5, 2009
%s Unix Epoch Time timestamp (same as the time() function) Example: 305815200 for September 10, 1979 08:40:00 AM
%x Preferred date representation based on locale, without the time Example: 02/05/09 for February 5, 2009
Miscellaneous
%n A newline character ("\n")
%t A Tab character ("\t")
%% A literal percentage character ("%")

Maximum length of this parameter is 1023 characters. Warning: Contrary to ISO-9899:1999, Sun Solaris starts with Sunday as 1. As a result, %u may not function as described in this manual. Warning Windows only: The %e modifier is not supported in the Windows implementation of this function. To achieve this value, the %#d modifier can be used instead. The example below illustrates how to write a cross platform compatible function. The %z and %Z modifiers both return the time zone name instead of the offset or abbreviation. Warning: macOS only: The %P modifier is not supported in the macOS implementation of this function.

timestamp

The optional timestamp parameter is an integer Unix timestamp that defaults to the current local time if a timestamp is not given. In other words, it defaults to the value of time().

Return

Returns a string formatted according format using the given timestamp or the current local time if no timestamp is given. Month and weekday names and other language-dependent strings respect the current locale set with setlocale().

Examples

1

<?

setlocale(LC_TIME, "C");
echo strftime("%A");
setlocale(LC_TIME, "fi_FI");
echo strftime(" in Finnish is %A,");
setlocale(LC_TIME, "fr_FR");
echo strftime(" in French %A, and");
setlocale(LC_TIME, "de_DE");
echo strftime(" in German %A.");

?>
Tuesday in Finnish is tiistai, in French mardi, and in German Dienstag.

2

<?

/*     December 2002 / January 2003
ISOWk  M   Tu  W   Thu F   Sa  Su
----- ----------------------------
51     16  17  18  19  20  21  22
52     23  24  25  26  27  28  29
1      30  31   1   2   3   4   5
2       6   7   8   9  10  11  12
3      13  14  15  16  17  18  19   */

// Outputs: 12/28/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = 52,2002,2002
echo "12/28/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y", strtotime("12/28/2002")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 12/30/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = 1,2003,2002
echo "12/30/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y", strtotime("12/30/2002")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 1/3/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = 1,2003,2003
echo "1/3/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("1/3/2003")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 1/10/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = 2,2003,2003
echo "1/10/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("1/10/2003")) . "\n";

/*     December 2004 / January 2005
ISOWk  M   Tu  W   Thu F   Sa  Su
----- ----------------------------
51     13  14  15  16  17  18  19
52     20  21  22  23  24  25  26
53     27  28  29  30  31   1   2
1       3   4   5   6   7   8   9
2      10  11  12  13  14  15  16   */

// Outputs: 12/23/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = 52,2004,2004
echo "12/23/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("12/23/2004")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 12/31/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = 53,2004,2004
echo "12/31/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("12/31/2004")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 1/2/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = 53,2004,2005
echo "1/2/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("1/2/2005")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 1/3/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = 1,2005,2005
echo "1/3/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("1/3/2005")) . "\n";

?>
12/28/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = 52,2002,2002
12/30/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = 01,2003,2002
1/3/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = 01,2003,2003
1/10/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = 02,2003,2003
12/23/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = 52,2004,2004
12/31/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = 53,2004,2004
1/2/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = 53,2004,2005
1/3/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = 01,2005,2005

3

<?

// Jan 1: results in: '%e%1%' (%%, e, %%, %e, %%)
$format = '%%e%%%e%%';

// Check for Windows to find and replace the %e modifier correctly
if (strtoupper(substr(PHP_OS, 0, 3)) == 'WIN') {
    $format = preg_replace('#(?<!%)((?:%%)*)%e#', '\1%#d', $format);
}

echo strftime($format);

?>
%e%20%

4

<?

// Describe the formats.
$strftimeFormats = array(
    'A' => 'A full textual representation of the day',
    'B' => 'Full month name, based on the locale',
    'C' => 'Two digit representation of the century (year divided by 100, truncated to an integer)',
    'D' => 'Same as "%m/%d/%y"',
    'E' => '',
    'F' => 'Same as "%Y-%m-%d"',
    'G' => 'The full four-digit version of %g',
    'H' => 'Two digit representation of the hour in 24-hour format',
    'I' => 'Two digit representation of the hour in 12-hour format',
    'J' => '',
    'K' => '',
    'L' => '',
    'M' => 'Two digit representation of the minute',
    'N' => '',
    'O' => '',
    'P' => 'lower-case "am" or "pm" based on the given time',
    'Q' => '',
    'R' => 'Same as "%H:%M"',
    'S' => 'Two digit representation of the second',
    'T' => 'Same as "%H:%M:%S"',
    'U' => 'Week number of the given year, starting with the first Sunday as the first week',
    'V' => 'ISO-8601:1988 week number of the given year, starting with the first week of the year with at least 4 weekdays, with Monday being the start of the week',
    'W' => 'A numeric representation of the week of the year, starting with the first Monday as the first week',
    'X' => 'Preferred time representation based on locale, without the date',
    'Y' => 'Four digit representation for the year',
    'Z' => 'The time zone offset/abbreviation option NOT given by %z (depends on operating system)',
    'a' => 'An abbreviated textual representation of the day',
    'b' => 'Abbreviated month name, based on the locale',
    'c' => 'Preferred date and time stamp based on local',
    'd' => 'Two-digit day of the month (with leading zeros)',
    'e' => 'Day of the month, with a space preceding single digits',
    'f' => '',
    'g' => 'Two digit representation of the year going by ISO-8601:1988 standards (see %V)',
    'h' => 'Abbreviated month name, based on the locale (an alias of %b)',
    'i' => '',
    'j' => 'Day of the year, 3 digits with leading zeros',
    'k' => 'Hour in 24-hour format, with a space preceding single digits',
    'l' => 'Hour in 12-hour format, with a space preceding single digits',
    'm' => 'Two digit representation of the month',
    'n' => 'A newline character ("\n")',
    'o' => '',
    'p' => 'UPPER-CASE "AM" or "PM" based on the given time',
    'q' => '',
    'r' => 'Same as "%I:%M:%S %p"',
    's' => 'Unix Epoch Time timestamp',
    't' => 'A Tab character ("\t")',
    'u' => 'ISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week',
    'v' => '',
    'w' => 'Numeric representation of the day of the week',
    'x' => 'Preferred date representation based on locale, without the time',
    'y' => 'Two digit representation of the year',
    'z' => 'Either the time zone offset from UTC or the abbreviation (depends on operating system)',
    '%' => 'A literal percentage character ("%")',
);

// Results.
$strftimeValues = array();

// Evaluate the formats whilst suppressing any errors.
foreach($strftimeFormats as $format => $description){
    if (False !== ($value = @strftime("%{$format}"))){
        $strftimeValues[$format] = $value;
    }
}

// Find the longest value.
$maxValueLength = 2 + max(array_map('strlen', $strftimeValues));

// Report known formats.
foreach($strftimeValues as $format => $value){
    echo "Known format   : '{$format}' = ", str_pad("'{$value}'", $maxValueLength), " ( {$strftimeFormats[$format]} )\n";
}

// Report unknown formats.
foreach(array_diff_key($strftimeFormats, $strftimeValues) as $format => $description){
    echo "Unknown format : '{$format}'   ", str_pad(' ', $maxValueLength), ($description ? " ( {$description} )" : ''), "\n";
}

?>
Known format   : 'A' = 'Tuesday'                  ( A full textual representation of the day )
Known format   : 'B' = 'April'                    ( Full month name, based on the locale )
Known format   : 'C' = '20'                       ( Two digit representation of the century (year divided by 100, truncated to an integer) )
Known format   : 'D' = '04/20/21'                 ( Same as "%m/%d/%y" )
Known format   : 'E' = '%E'                       (  )
Known format   : 'F' = '2021-04-20'               ( Same as "%Y-%m-%d" )
Known format   : 'G' = '2021'                     ( The full four-digit version of %g )
Known format   : 'H' = '00'                       ( Two digit representation of the hour in 24-hour format )
Known format   : 'I' = '12'                       ( Two digit representation of the hour in 12-hour format )
Known format   : 'J' = '%J'                       (  )
Known format   : 'K' = '%K'                       (  )
Known format   : 'L' = '%L'                       (  )
Known format   : 'M' = '39'                       ( Two digit representation of the minute )
Known format   : 'N' = '%N'                       (  )
Known format   : 'O' = '%O'                       (  )
Known format   : 'P' = 'am'                       ( lower-case "am" or "pm" based on the given time )
Known format   : 'Q' = '%Q'                       (  )
Known format   : 'R' = '00:39'                    ( Same as "%H:%M" )
Known format   : 'S' = '37'                       ( Two digit representation of the second )
Known format   : 'T' = '00:39:37'                 ( Same as "%H:%M:%S" )
Known format   : 'U' = '16'                       ( Week number of the given year, starting with the first Sunday as the first week )
Known format   : 'V' = '16'                       ( ISO-8601:1988 week number of the given year, starting with the first week of the year with at least 4 weekdays, with Monday being the start of the week )
Known format   : 'W' = '16'                       ( A numeric representation of the week of the year, starting with the first Monday as the first week )
Known format   : 'X' = '00:39:37'                 ( Preferred time representation based on locale, without the date )
Known format   : 'Y' = '2021'                     ( Four digit representation for the year )
Known format   : 'Z' = 'UTC'                      ( The time zone offset/abbreviation option NOT given by %z (depends on operating system) )
Known format   : 'a' = 'Tue'                      ( An abbreviated textual representation of the day )
Known format   : 'b' = 'Apr'                      ( Abbreviated month name, based on the locale )
Known format   : 'c' = 'Tue Apr 20 00:39:37 2021' ( Preferred date and time stamp based on local )
Known format   : 'd' = '20'                       ( Two-digit day of the month (with leading zeros) )
Known format   : 'e' = '20'                       ( Day of the month, with a space preceding single digits )
Known format   : 'f' = '%f'                       (  )
Known format   : 'g' = '21'                       ( Two digit representation of the year going by ISO-8601:1988 standards (see %V) )
Known format   : 'h' = 'Apr'                      ( Abbreviated month name, based on the locale (an alias of %b) )
Known format   : 'i' = '%i'                       (  )
Known format   : 'j' = '110'                      ( Day of the year, 3 digits with leading zeros )
Known format   : 'k' = ' 0'                       ( Hour in 24-hour format, with a space preceding single digits )
Known format   : 'l' = '12'                       ( Hour in 12-hour format, with a space preceding single digits )
Known format   : 'm' = '04'                       ( Two digit representation of the month )
Known format   : 'n' = '
'                        ( A newline character ("\n") )
Known format   : 'o' = '%o'                       (  )
Known format   : 'p' = 'AM'                       ( UPPER-CASE "AM" or "PM" based on the given time )
Known format   : 'q' = '%q'                       (  )
Known format   : 'r' = '12:39:37 AM'              ( Same as "%I:%M:%S %p" )
Known format   : 's' = '1618904377'               ( Unix Epoch Time timestamp )
Known format   : 't' = '    '                        ( A Tab character ("\t") )
Known format   : 'u' = '2'                        ( ISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week )
Known format   : 'v' = '%v'                       (  )
Known format   : 'w' = '2'                        ( Numeric representation of the day of the week )
Known format   : 'x' = '04/20/21'                 ( Preferred date representation based on locale, without the time )
Known format   : 'y' = '21'                       ( Two digit representation of the year )
Known format   : 'z' = '+0000'                    ( Either the time zone offset from UTC or the abbreviation (depends on operating system) )
Known format   : '%' = '%'                        ( A literal percentage character ("%") )

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